Manitoba Museum (2020). “Value & Benefit.”


OLS-North with the direct support of the Nordik Institute (2019). Valuing Northern Libraries Toolkit.


Canadian Museum Association (2018). “Economic Impact of Culture and Sport in Canada.”

Hamilton Public Library (2018). “Discover HPL: Measuring the Impact of Hamilton Public Library.”

Ottawa Culture Research Group (2018). Counting on Culture

Toronto Public Library (2018). Technology Access in Public Libraries: Outcomes and Impacts
for Ontario Communities


Burlington Public Library (2017). “Building Burlington’s Prosperity: The Economic Impact of Burlington Public Library.” Burlington, ON.

Department of Communications and the Arts, Australian Government (2017). Impact of Our National Cultural Institutions. Text. Department of Communications and the Arts, Australian Government. June 14, 2017.

Hoe, Nina et al (2017). “Free Library of Philadelphia Impact Evaluation Report”

Royal BC Museum (2017). “Economic Impact 2016-2017.”

Vancouver Art Gallery (2017). “The Transformation of the Vancouver Art Gallery: A 2017 Pre-Budget Submission to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Finance.”

Vaughan Public Libraries (2017). “The Economic Impact of Vaughan Public Libraries on the City of Vaughan.”


Calgary Public Library (2016). Calgary Public Library Community Benefits Study 2013/14.

Corr, Kate (2016). “Picture this: The impact of art and galleries for dementia.”

Edmonton Public Library (2016). “The Economic and Socio-Cultural Impact of the Edmonton Public Library.”

Ottawa Public Library (2016). “Check out the Benefit: The Economic Benefits of the Ottawa Public Library.”

Kyle, Todd. 2016. “Newmarket Public Library Economic Impact Study.” Newmarket.
(not available online)

Nashville Area Chamber of Commerce (2016). “Economic Impact and Contribution Analysis: Nashville Public Library.” Nashville, TN. F

Vancouver Island Regional Library Administration (2016). Assessing the Economic Impact of Vancouver Island Regional Library on Our Member Communities.


Berk and Associates 2015. “Reinvesting and Renewing for the 21st Century: A Community and Economic Benefits Study of San Francisco’s Branch Library Improvement Program.”

London Public Library (2015). A Perspective on the Economic Impact of London Public Library on the City of London.

Sault Ste. Marie Public Library (2015). Building Strong and Vibrant Communities: The Value of Sault Ste. Marie’s Public Library.

Stratford Public Library (2015). “Stratford Public Library’s Economic Impact.”


City of Kawartha Lakes Public Library (2014). “Public Library Economic Impact Study.”

Diamanti, Jane (2014). “The Economic Impact of Halton Hills Public Library.” Halton Hills. (not available online)

Milton Public Library (2014). “The Economic Impact of the Milton Public Library on the Town of Milton.”

Pickering Public Library (2014). “The Economic Impact of the Pickering Public Library on the City of Pickering.”

Royal Society of Canada (2014). Expert Panel Report on The Future Now: Canada’s Libraries, Archives, and Public Memory.


Arts Marketing Association (2013). The Economic Impact of Museums and Galleries.” Cambridge, UK.

Museums Association (2013). The Economic Impact of Museums and Galleries.

Toronto Public Library (2013). So Much More: The Economic Impact of
Toronto Public Library


Newman, Robert (2012). “Economic Impact of Libraries in New York City.” New York, NY.


Bureau of Business and Economic Research (2011). “Minnesota Public Libraries’ Return on Investment.” University of Minnesota Duluth.

State Library of Victoria and Public Libraries Victoria Network (2011). Dollars, Sense and Public Libraries.


University of North Carolina Charlotte Urban Institute (2010). “Expanding Minds, Empowering Individuals, and Enriching Our Community: A Return on Investment Study of the Charlotte Mecklenburg Library 2010.” UNC Charlotte. 

2009 and earlier

Halifax Public Library (2009). Halifax Central Library: An Economic Impact Assessment.

Moffat Centre for Travel and Tourism Business Development (2005). Realising the True Impact of Museums and Galleries in Scottish Tourism. Edinburgh: Museums Galleries Scotland.

Pennsylvania Economy League, Eastern Division (2004). “An Economic Impact and Activity Analysis of the Central Branch Expansion and Renovation.” Philadelphia: Free Library of Philadelphia.

Academic Articles

Bhatt, R. (2010). “The impact of public library use on reading, television, and academic outcomes”,
Journal of Urban Economics, 68: 148-66.

Caswell, Michelle et al. (2016). “‘To Suddenly Discover Yourself Existing’: Uncovering the Impact of Community Archives” in The American Archivist, 79(1), 56–81.

Daniels, Morgan, and Elizabeth Yakel. 2013. “Uncovering Impact: The Influence of Archives on Student Learning.” The Journal of Academic Librarianship 39 (5): 414–22.

Duff, Wendy M. et al. (2013). “Social Justice Impact of Archives: A Preliminary Investigation” in Archival Science,
13(4), 317-48.

Ferguson, Stuart (2012). “Are public libraries developers of social capital? A review of their contribution and attempts to demonstrate it”. The Australian Library Journal, 61:1, 22-33.

Moss, Michael, and David Thomas, editors (2019). Do Archives Have Value?

Noh, Younghee (2019). “A Study on the Library’s Cultural Value Based on the Perceptions of Users and Librarians in Korea” in International Journal of Libraries and Information Studies, 69(4), 275-302.

Rich and Feldman (2018). Libraries Transform: Because We Have So Much to Say but So Little Time. Library and Book Trade Almanac; 63. (not available online)

University of Washington Information School (2010). “Opportunity for All: How the American Public Benefits from Internet Access at U.S. Libraries”.

Wilson, Ian E. (2012). “‘Peace, order and good government’: Archives in Society” in Archival Science,
12(2), 235–244.

Yakel, Elizabeth et al. (2012). “The Economic Impact of Archives: Surveys of Users of Government Archives in Canada and the United States” in The American Archivist, 75(2), 297-325.

Yorke, Lois K. (2014). “Nine Hundred Points of Light: The Canadian Community of Archives” in Canadian Issues, Summer 2014, 44-49.

Government/NGO Studies

Canadian Urban Libraries Council (2018). “Canadian Public Library Statistics.

Cultural Human Resources Council (2019). “Labour Market Information Study of the Cultural Labour Force 2019.”

Department of Canadian Heritage (2018). “Government of Canada Survey of Heritage Institutions: 2017.”

Ontario Museums Association (2019). “Museum Impact Survey”

Statistics Canada (2019). “Provincial and Territorial Culture Indicators, 2017.”